For other uses, see Bahrain (disambiguation).[1][2]

Kingdom of Bahrain

مملكة البحرين Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn

[3] [4]
Flag Coat of arms

Bahrainona Our Bahrain  MENU   0:00 

[5]Location of  Bahrain  (green)

in the Middle East  (grey)  –  [Legend]


and largest city


26°13′N 50°35′E

Official languages Arabic
Demonym Bahraini
Government Unitary constitutional monarchy
 -  King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
 -  Crown Prince Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
 -  Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa
Legislature National Assembly
 -  Upper house Consultative Council
 -  Lower house Council of Representatives
 -  from Persia 1783 
 -  End of treaties with the United Kingdom 15 August 1971 
 -  Total 765.3 km2 (187th)

295.5 sq mi

 -  Water (%) 0
 -  2010 estimate 1,234,571[1] (155th)
 -  Density 1,626.6/km2 (7th)

4,212.8/sq mi

GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $31.101 billion[2] (91st)
 -  Per capita $27,556[2] (33rd)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $26.108 billion[2] (91st)
 -  Per capita $23,132[2] (33rd)
HDI (2013)  0.796[3]


Currency Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Time zone AST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code +973
ISO 3166 code BH
Internet TLD .bh

Bahrain ([6]i/bɑːˈrn/Arabic‏البحرين‎ [7] al-BaḥraynPersian‏بحرین‎ Bahreyn), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (Arabicمملكة البحرين‎ [8] Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn) is a small island country situated near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is anarchipelago with Bahrain Island the largest land mass at 55 km (34 mi) long by 18 km (11 mi) wide. Saudi Arabia lies to the west and is connected to Bahrain by the King Fahd Causeway while Iran lies 200 km (124 mi) to the north across the Persian Gulf. The peninsula of Qatar is to the southeast across the Gulf of Bahrain. The plannedQatar Bahrain Causeway will link Bahrain and Qatar and become the world's longest marine causeway.[4] The population in 2010 stood at 1,234,571, including 666,172 non-nationals.[1]

Bahrain is believed to be the site of the ancient land of the Dilmun civilization[5] and later came under the rule of successive Parthian and Sassanid Persian empires. The country was one of the earliest areas to convert to Islam in 628 AD. Following a period of Arab rule, Bahrain was occupied by the Portuguese in 1521, who in turn were expelled in 1602 by Shah Abbas I of the Safavid empire. In 1783, the Bani Utbahtribe captured Bahrain from the Qajars[6] and has since been ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family, with Ahmed al Fateh the first hakim of Bahrain. In the late 1800s, following successive treaties with the British, Bahrain became a protectorate of the United Kingdom. Following the withdrawal of the British from the region in the late 1960s, Bahrain declared independence in 1971. Formerly a state, Bahrain was declared a "Kingdom" in 2002. Since early 2011, the country has experiencedsustained protests and unrest inspired by the regional Arab Spring, particularly by the majority Shia population.[7]

As of 2012, Bahrain had a high Human Development Index (ranked 48th in the world) and was recognised by the World Bank as a high income economy. The country is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organisation, the Arab League, theNon-Aligned Movement and the Organization of the Islamic Conference as well as a founding member of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf.[8]Bahrain was designated a major non-NATO ally by the George W. Bushadministration in 2001.[9]

Oil was discovered in Bahrain in 1932, the first such find on the Arabian side of the Gulf. Since the late 20th century, Bahrain has sought to diversify its economy and become less dependent on oil by investing in the banking and tourism sectors.[10]The country's capital, Manama is home to many large financial structures, including the Bahrain World Trade Center and the Bahrain Financial Harbour. The Qal'at al-Bahrain (the harbour and capital of the ancient land of Dilmun) and the Bahrain pearling trail were declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2005 and 2012 respectively.[11][12] The Bahrain Formula One Grand Prix takes place at the Bahrain International Circuit.[13]


  [hide*1 Etymology


[9][10]A 1745 Bellin map of the historical region of Bahrain

In Arabic, Bahrayn is the dual form of bahr ("sea"), so al-Bahrayn means "the Two Seas" although which two seas were originally intended remains in dispute.[14] The term appears five times in the Qur'an, but does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as Awal—but rather to the oases of al-Katif and Hadjar (modern al-Hasa).[14] It is unclear when the term began to refer exclusively to the Awal islands, but it was probably after the 15th century.

Today, al-Hasa belongs to Saudi Arabia and Bahrain's "two seas" are instead generally taken to be the bay east and west of the island,[15] the seas north and south of the island,[16] or the salt and fresh water present above and below the ground.[17] In addition to wells, there are areas of the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the salt water as noted by visitors since antiquity.[18]

An alternate theory with regard to Bahrain's toponymy is offered by the al-Ahsa region, which suggests that the two seas were the Great Green Ocean and a peaceful lake on the Arabian mainland. Another supposition by al-Jawahari suggests that the more formal name Bahri (lit. "belonging to the sea") would have been misunderstood and so was opted against[clarification needed].[17]

Until the late Middle Ages, "Bahrain" referred to the larger historical region of Bahrain that included Al-Ahsa, Al-Qatif (both now within the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia) and the Awal Islands (now the Bahrain Islands). The region stretched from Basra in Iraq to theStrait of Hormuz in Oman. This was Iqlīm al-Bahrayn's "Bahrayn Province". The exact date at which the term "Bahrain" began to refer solely to the Awal archipelago is unknown.[19]


Main article: History of Bahrain===Pre-Islamic period[edit]===

[11][12]The Persian Empire in Sassanid era at its peak during the reign of Khosrau II (590-628).

Inhabited since ancient times, Bahrain occupies a strategic location in the Persian Gulf. It is the best natural port between the mouth of the TigrisEuphrates Rivers and Oman, a source of copper in ancient times. Bahrain may have been associated with the Dilmun civilisation, an important Bronze Age trade centre linking Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley.[20] It was later ruled by the Assyrians and Babylonians.[21] It came under the control of Persians,[22]and then Arabs, under whom the island first became Nestorian Christian and then Islamic.

From the 6th to 3rd century BC, Bahrain was added to the Persian Empire by theAchaemenian dynasty. By about 250 BC, the Parthians brought the Persian Gulf under its control and extended its influence as far as Oman. During the classical era, the island'sHellenic name was Tylos, named when Nearchus discovered it while serving underAlexander the Great during Alexander's Asia campaign.[23] In order to control trade routes, the Parthians established garrisons along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf.[24] In the 3rd century AD, Ardashir I, the first ruler of the Sassanid dynasty, marched on Oman and Bahrain, where he defeated Sanatruq the ruler of Bahrain.[25] At this time, Bahrain comprised the southern Sassanid province along with the Persian Gulf's southern shore.[26]

The Sassanid Empire divided their southern province into the three districts of Haggar (now al-Hafuf province in Saudi Arabia), Batan Ardashir (now al-Qatif province in Saudi Arabia) and Mishmahig (which in Middle-Persian/Pahlavi means "ewe-fish") which is present-day Bahrain.[25] Early Islamic sources describe the country as inhabited by members of the Abdul QaisTamim, and Bakr tribes who worshipped the idol Awal,[27] from which the Arabs named the island of Bahrain Awal for many centuries.[27] However, Bahrain was also a center of Nestorian Christianity, including two of its bishoprics.[25]

Islam, Persian and Portuguese control[edit]Edit

[13][14]Facsimile of a letter sent by Muhammad toMunzir ibn-Sawa al-Tamimi, governor of Bahrain in 628 AD

Traditional Islamic accounts state that Al-ʿAlāʾ Al-Haḍrami was sent as an envoy to theBahrain region by the prophet Muhammad in 628 AD and that Munzir ibn-Sawa al-Tamimi, the local ruler, responded to his mission and converted the entire area.[28][29]

In 899 AD, the Qarmatians, a millenarian Ismaili Muslim sect seized Bahrain, seeking to create a utopian society based on reason and redistribution of property among initiates. Thereafter, the Qarmatians demanded tribute from the caliph in Baghdad, and in 930 AD sacked Mecca and Medina, bringing the sacred Black Stone back to their base in Ahsa, in medieval Bahrain, for ransom. According to historian Al-Juwayni, the stone was returned 22 years later in 951 under mysterious circumstances. Wrapped in a sack, it was thrown into the Great Mosque of Kufa in Iraq, accompanied by a note saying "By command we took it, and by command we have brought it back." The theft and removal of the Black Stone caused it to break into seven pieces.[25][30][31]

Following a 976 AD defeat by the Abbasids,[32] the Qarmations were overthrown by the Arab Uyunid dynasty of al-Hasa, who took over the entire Bahrain region in 1076.[33] The Uyunids controlled Bahrain until 1235, when the archipelago was briefly occupied by the Persian ruler of Fars. In 1253, the Bedouin Usfurids brought down the Uyunid dynasty, thereby gaining control over eastern Arabia, including the islands of Bahrain. In 1330, the archipelago became a tributary state of the rulers of Hormuz,[19] though locally the islands were controlled by the Shi'ite Jarwanid dynasty of Qatif.[34] In the mid-15th century, the archipelago came under the rule of the Jabrids, a Bedouin dynasty also based in Al-Ahsa that ruled most of eastern Arabia.

In 1521, the Portuguese allied with Hormuz and seized Bahrain from the Jabrid ruler Migrin ibn Zamil, who was killed during the takeover. Portuguese rule lasted for around 80 years, during which time they depended mainly on Sunni Persian governors.[19] The Portuguese were expelled from the islands in 1602 by Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty of Persia,[35] which gave impetus to Shia Islam.[36] For the next two centuries, Persian rulers retained control of the archipelago, interrupted by the 1717 and 1738 invasions of the Ibadhis of Oman.[37] During most of this period, they resorted to governing Bahrain indirectly, either through the city of Bushehr or through immigrant Sunni Arab clans. The latter were tribes returning to the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf from Persian territories in the north who were known as Huwala (literally: those that have changed or moved).[19][38][39] In 1753, the Huwala clan of Nasr Al-Madhkur invaded Bahrain on behalf of the Iranian Zand leader Karim Khan Zand and restored direct Iranian rule.[39]

Rise of the Bani Utbah[edit]Edit

In 1783, Nasr Al-Madhkur, ruler of Bahrain and Bushire, lost the islands of Bahrain following his defeat by the Bani Utbah tribe at the 1782 Battle of Zubarah. Bahrain was not new territory to the Bani Utbah; they had been a presence there since the 17th century.[40]During that time, they started purchasing date palm gardens in Bahrain; a document shows that 81 years before arrival of the Al-Khalifa, one of the shaikhs of the Al Bin Ali tribe (an offshoot of the Bani Utbah) had bought a palm garden from Mariam bint Ahmed Al Sindi inSitra island.[41]

The Al Bin Ali were the dominant group controlling the town of Zubarah on the Qatar peninsula,[42][43] originally the center of power of the Bani Utbah. After the Bani Utbah gained control of Bahrain, the Al Bin Ali had a practically independent status there as a self-governing tribe. They used a flag with four red and three white stripes, called the Al-Sulami flag[44] in Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, and the Eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Later, different Arab family clans and tribes from Qatar moved to Bahrain to settle after the fall of Nasr Al-Madhkur of Bushehr. These families and tribes included the Al Khalifa, Al-Ma'awdah, Al-Fadhil, Al-Mannai, Al-Noaimi, Al-Sulaiti, Al-Sadah, Al-Thawadi, and other families and tribes.[45]

Al Khalifa ascendancy[edit]Edit

The Al Khalifa family moved to Bahrain in 1797. Originally, they lived in Umm Qasr where they preyed on the caravans of Basra and pirated ships in the Shatt al-Arab waterway until Turks expelled them to Kuwait where they remained until 1766.[46] In the early 19th century, Bahrain was invaded by both the Omanis and the Al Sauds. In 1802 it was governed by a twelve-year-old child, when the Omani ruler Sayyid Sultan installed his son, Salim, as Governor in the Arad Fort.[47] In 1820, the Al Khalifa tribe were recognised by Great Britain as the rulers ("Al-Hakim" in Arabic) of Bahrain after signing a treaty relationship.[48] However, ten years later they were forced to pay yearly tributes to Egypt despite seeking Persian and British protection.[49]

[15][16]Arad Fort in Arad.

In 1860, the Al Khalifas used the same tactic when the British tried to overpower Bahrain. Writing letters to the Persians and Ottomans, Al Khalifas agreed to place Bahrain under the latter's protection in March due to offering better conditions. Eventually the Government of British India overpowered Bahrain when the Persians refused to protect it. Colonel Pelly signed a new treaty with Al Khalifas placing Bahrain under British rule and protection.[49]

Following the Qatari–Bahraini War in 1868, British representatives signed another agreement with the Al Khalifas. It specified that the ruler could not dispose of any of his territory except to the United Kingdom and could not enter into relationships with any foreign government without British consent.[50][51] In return the British promised to protect Bahrain from all aggression by sea and to lend support in case of land attack.[51] More importantly the British promised to support the rule of the Al Khalifa in Bahrain, securing its unstable position as rulers of the country. Other agreements in 1880 and 1892 sealed the protectorate status of Bahrain to the British.[51]

Unrest amongst the people of Bahrain began when Britain officially established complete dominance over the territory in 1892. The first revolt and widespread uprising took place in March 1895 against Sheikh Issa bin Ali, then ruler of Bahrain.[52] Sheikh Issa was the first of the Al Khalifa to rule without Persian relations. Sir Arnold Wilson, Britain's representative in the Persian Gulf and author of The Persian Gulf, arrived in Bahrain from Muscat at this time.[52] The uprising developed further with some protesters killed by British forces.[52]

Early 20th Century reforms[edit]Edit

In 1911, a group of Bahraini merchants demanded restrictions on the British influence in the country. The group's leaders were subsequently arrested and exiled to India. In 1923, the British replaced Sheikh Issa bin Ali with his son. Some clerical opponents and families such as al Dossari left or were exiled to Saudi Arabia and Iran.[53] Three years later the British placed the country under the de facto rule of Charles Belgrave who operated as an adviser to the ruler until 1957.[54][55] Belgrave brought a number of reforms such as establishment of the country's first modern school in 1919, the Persian Gulf's first girls school in 1928[56] and the abolition of slavery in 1937.[57] At the same time, the pearl diving industry developed at a rapid pace.

In 1927, Rezā Shāh, then Shah of Iran, demanded the return of Bahrain in a letter to the League of Nations. A move that prompted Belgrave to undertake harsh measures including encouraging conflicts between Shia and Sunni Muslims in order to bring down the uprisings and limit the Iranian influence.[58] Belgrave even went further by suggesting to rename the Persian Gulf to the "Arabian Gulf"; however, the proposal was refused by the British government.[54] Britain's interest in Bahrain's development was motivated by concerns over Saudi and Iranian ambitions in the region.

Discovery of petroleum and WWII[edit]Edit

The Bahrain Petroleum Company (Bapco), a subsidiary of the Standard Oil Company of California (Socal),[59] discovered oil in 1931 and production began the following year. This was to bring rapid modernisation to Bahrain. Relations with the United Kingdom became closer, as evidenced by the British Royal Navy moving its entire Middle Eastern command from Bushehr in Iran to Bahrain in 1935.[60][self-published source?]

Bahrain participated in the Second World War on the Allied side, joining on 10 September 1939. On 19 October 1940, four ItalianSM.82s bombers bombed Bahrain alongside Dhahran oilfields in Saudi Arabia,[61] targeting Allied-operated oil refineries.[62] Although minimal damage was caused in both locations, the attack forced the Allies to upgrade Bahrain's defences, an action which further stretched Allied military resources.[62]

After World War II, increasing anti-British sentiment spread throughout the Arab World and led to riots in Bahrain. The riots focused on the Jewish community.[63] In 1948, following rising hostilities and looting,[64] most members of Bahrain's Jewish community abandoned their properties and evacuated to Bombay, later settling in Israel (Pardes Hanna-Karkur) and the United Kingdom. As of 2008, 37 Jews remained in the country.[64] In 2008, Bahrain's king appealed to former-Bahraini Jews abroad in the US and UK to return to the country and had also offered compensation and citizenship.[63]

In the 1950s, the National Union Committee, formed by reformists following sectarian clashes, demanded an elected popular assembly, removal of Belgrave and carried out a number of protests and general strikes. In 1965 a month-long uprising broke out after hundreds of workers at the Bahrain Petroleum Company were laid off.[65]

Abandonment of Iranian claim[edit]Edit

Iran's parliament passed a bill in November 1957 declaring Bahrain to be the 14th province of Iran,[66] with two empty seats allocated for its representatives. This action caused numerous problems for Iran in its international relations, especially with some United Nations bodies, Britain, Saudi Arabia, and a number of Arab countries.[58] At this time, Britain set out to change the demographics of Bahrain. The British policy of "Deiranisation" of the country consisted of importing large numbers of different Arabs as well as other ethnic groups from the British colonies to work as labourers.[58]

In 1965, Britain began dialogue with Iran to determine their borders in the Persian Gulf. Before long extensive differences over borders and territory came to light, including the dispute over the dominion of Bahrain. The two were not able to determine the maritime borders between the northern and southern countries of the Persian Gulf.[67] Eventually Iran and Britain agreed to put the matter of Dominion of Bahrain to international judgment and requested the United Nations General Secretary take on this responsibility.[68][69]

Iran pressed hard for a referendum in Bahrain in the face of strong opposition from both the British and the Bahraini leaders.[58] Their opposition was based on Al Khalifa's view that such a move would negate 150 years of their clan's rule in the country. In the end, as an alternative to the referendum, Iran and Britain agreed to request the United Nations conduct a survey in Bahrain that would determine the political future of the territory.

Report no. 9772 was submitted to the UN General Secretary and on 11 May 1970, the United Nations Security Council endorsed Winspeare's conclusion that an overwhelming majority of the people wished recognition of Bahrain's identity as a fully independent and sovereign state free to decide its own relations with other states.[70] Both Britain and Iran accepted the report and brought their dispute to a close.[71]


On 15 August 1971,[72][73] Bahrain declared independence and signed a new treaty of friendship with the United Kingdom. Bahrain joined the United Nations and the Arab League later in the year.[74] The oil boom of the 1970s benefited Bahrain greatly, although the subsequent downturn hurt the economy. The country had already begun diversification of its economy and benefited further fromLebanese Civil War in the 1970s and 1980s, when Bahrain replaced Beirut as the Middle East's financial hub after Lebanon's large banking sector was driven out of the country by the war.[75]

Following the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, in 1981 Bahraini Shī'a fundamentalists orchestrated a failed coup attempt under the auspices of a front organisation, the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain. The coup would have installed a Shī'a cleric exiled in Iran, Hujjatu l-Islām Hādī al-Mudarrisī, as supreme leader heading a theocratic government.[76] In December 1994, a group of youths threw stones at female runners during an international marathon for running bare-legged. The resulting clash with police soon grew into civil unrest.[77][78]

popular uprising occurred between 1994 and 2000 in which leftists, liberals and Islamists joined forces.[79] The event resulted in approximately forty deaths and ended after Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa became the Emir of Bahrain in 1999.[80] A referendum on 14–15 February 2001 massively supported the National Action Charter.[81] He instituted elections for parliament, gave women the right to vote, and released all political prisoners.[82] As part of the adoption of the National Action Charter on 14 February 2002, Bahrain changed its formal name from the State (dawla) of Bahrain to the Kingdom of Bahrain.[83]

[17][18]Over 100,000 protesters took part in apro-democracy march on 22 February 2011.

The country participated in military action against the Taliban in October 2001 by deploying a frigate in the Arabian Sea for rescue and humanitarian operations.[84] As a result, in November of that year, US president George W. Bush's administration designated Bahrain as a "major non-NATO ally".[84] Bahrain opposed the invasion of Iraq and had offeredSaddam Hussein asylum in the days prior to the invasion.[84] Relations improved with neighbouring Qatar after the border dispute over the Hawar Islands was resolved by theInternational Court of Justice in The Hague in 2001. Following the political liberalisation of the country, Bahrain negotiated a free trade agreement with the United States in 2004.[85]

Bahraini uprising[edit]Edit

Main article: Bahraini uprising (2011–present)

Inspired by the regional Arab Spring, large protests started in Bahrain in early 2011.[86][87]:162–3 The government initially allowed protests following a pre-dawn raid on protesters camped in Pearl Roundabout.[87]:73–4, 88 A month later it requested security assistance from Saudi Arabia and other GCC countries and declared a three-month state of emergency.[87]:132–9 The government then launched a crackdown on opposition that included conducting thousands of arrests.[88][89][90][91][92] Almost daily clashes between protesters and security forces led to dozens of deaths.[93] Protests, sometimes staged by opposition parties, are ongoing.[94][95][96][97][98]


Main article: Geography of Bahrain[19][20]Bahrain political map, 2003[21][22]A beach in Muharraq.

Bahrain is a generally flat and aridarchipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia. It consists of a low desert plain rising gently to a low central escarpment with the highest point the 134 m (440 ft) Mountain of Smoke (Jabal ad Dukhan).[99][100] Bahrain had a total area of 665 km2 (257 sq mi) but due to land reclamation, the area increased to 767 km2(296 sq mi), which is slightly larger than theIsle of Man.[100]

Often described as an archipelago of 33 islands,[101] extensive land reclamation projects have changed this; by August 2008 the number of islands and island groups had increased to 84.[102] Bahrain does not share a land boundary with another country but does have a 161 km (100 mi) coastline. The country also claims a further 22 km (12 nmi) of territorial sea and a 44 km (24 nmi) contiguous zone. Bahrain's largest islands are Bahrain IslandMuharraq IslandUmm an Nasan, and Sitrah. Bahrain has mild winters and very hot, humid summers. The country's natural resources include large quantities of oil and natural gas as well as fish in the offshore waters. Arable land constitutes only 2.82%[103] of the total area.

92% of Bahrain is desert with periodic droughts and dust storms the main natural hazards for Bahrainis. Environmental issues facing Bahrain include desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, distribution stations, and illegal land reclamation at places such as Tubli Bay. The agricultural and domestic sectors' over-utilisation of the Dammam Aquifer, the principal aquifer in Bahrain, has led to its salinisation by adjacent brackish and saline water bodies. A hydrochemical study identified the locations of the sources of aquifer salinisation and delineated their areas of influence. The investigation indicates that the aquifer water quality is significantly modified as groundwater flows from the northwestern parts of Bahrain, where the aquifer receives its water by lateral underflow from eastern Saudi Arabia, to the southern and southeastern parts. Four types of salinisation of the aquifer are identified: brackish-water up-flow from the underlying brackish-water zones in north-central, western, and eastern regions; seawater intrusion in the eastern region; intrusion of sabkha water in the southwestern region; and irrigation return flow in a local area in the western region. Four alternatives for the management of groundwater quality that are available to the water authorities in Bahrain are discussed and their priority areas are proposed, based on the type and extent of each salinisation source, in addition to groundwater use in that area.[104]


Main article: Climate of Bahrain

The Zagros Mountains across the Persian Gulf in Iraq cause low level winds to be directed toward Bahrain. Dust storms from Iraq and Saudi Arabia transported by northwesterly winds, locally called Shamal wind, cause reduced visibility in the months of June and July.[105]

Due to the Persian Gulf area's low moisture, summers are very hot and dry. The seas around Bahrain are very shallow, heating up quickly in the summer to produce high humidity, especially at night. Summer temperatures may reach up to 50 °C (122 °F) under the right conditions.[106] Rainfall in Bahrain is minimal and irregular. Rainfalls mostly occur in winter, with a recorded maximum of 71.8 mm (2.83 in).[107]

[hide]Climate data for Manama
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 20.0


























Average low °C (°F) 14.1


























Precipitation mm (inches) 14.6


























Avg. precipitation days 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.4 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.7 1.7 9.9
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN[108]


[23][24]Phoenicopterus roseus (Greater Flamingos) are native to Bahrain.Main articles: List of mammals of Bahrain and List of birds of Bahrain

More than 330 species of birds were recorded in the Bahrain archipelago, 26 species of which breed in the country. Millions of migratory birds pass through the Gulf region in the winter and autumn months.[109] One globally endangered species, Chlamydotis undulata, is a regular migrant in the autumn.[109] The many islands and shallow seas of Bahrain are globally important for the breeding of the Phalacrocorax nigrogularis specie of bird, up to 100,000 pairs of these birds were recorded over the Hawar islands.[109] Only 18 species of mammals are found in Bahrain, animals such as Gazelles, desert rabbits and hedgehogsare common in the wild but the Arabian Oryx was hunted to extinction on the island.[109] 25 species of amphibians and reptiles were recorded as well as 21 species of butterflies and 307 species of flora.[109] The marine biotopes are diverse and include extensive sea grassbeds and mudflats, patchy coral reefs as well as offshore islands. Sea grass beds are important foraging grounds for some threatened species such as dugongs and the green turtle.[110] In 2003, Bahrain banned the capture of sea cowsmarine turtles and dolphinswithin its territorial waters.[109]

The Hawar Islands Protected Area provides valuable feeding and breeding grounds for a variety of migratory seabirds, it is an internationally recognised site for bird migration. The breeding colony of Socotra Cormorant on Hawar Islands is the largest in the world, and the dugongs foraging around the archipelago form the second largest dugong aggregation after Australia.[110]

Bahrain has five designated protected areas, four of which are marine environments.[109] They are:


Main article: Politics of Bahrain[25][26]Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, the King of Bahrain

Bahrain under the Al-Khalifa regime claims to be a constitutional monarchy headed by theKingShaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa; however, given its dictatorial oppression and lack of parliamentary power and lack of an indepedent judiciary, most observers assert that Bahrain is an absolute monarchy. King Hamad enjoys wide executive authorities which include appointing the Prime Minister and his ministers, commanding the army, chairing the Higher Judicial Council, appointing the parliament's upper half and dissolving its elected lower half.[87](p15) The head of government is the unelected Prime Minister, Shaikh Khalīfa bin Salman Al Khalifa, the uncle of the current king who has served in this position since 1971, making him the longest serving prime minister in the world.[111] In 2010, about half of thegovernment was composed of Al Khalifa family.[112]

Bahrain has a bicameral National Assembly (al-Jam'iyyah al-Watani) consisting of the Shura Council (Majlis Al-Shura) with 40 seats and the Council of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nuwab) with 40 seats. The 40 members of the Shura are appointed by the king. In the Council of Representatives, 40 members are elected by absolute majority vote in single-member constituencies to serve 4-year terms.[113] The appointed council "exercises a de facto veto" over the elected, because draft acts must be approved by it in order they pass into law. After that the king may ratify and issue the act or return it within six months to the National Assembly where it may only pass into law if approved by two thirds of both councils.[87](p15)

In 1973, the country held its first parliamentary elections; however, two years later, the late emir dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution after it rejected the State Security Law.[65] The period between 2002 and 2010 saw three parliamentary elections. Thefirst, held in 2002 was boycotted by the opposition, Al Wefaq, which won a majority in the second in 2006 and third in 2010.[114] The2011 by-election was held to replace 18 members of Al Wefaq who resigned in protest against government crackdown.[115][116]

The opening up of politics saw big gains for both Shīa and Sunnī Islamists in elections, which gave them a parliamentary platform to pursue their policies.[117] It gave a new prominence to clerics within the political system, with the most senior Shia religious leader, Sheikh Isa Qassim, playing a vital role.[118] This was especially evident when in 2005 the government called off the Shia branch of the "Family law" after over 100,000 Shia took to the streets. Islamists opposed the law because "neither elected MPs nor the government has the authority to change the law because these institutions could misinterpret the word of God". The law was supported by women activists who said they were "suffering in silence". They managed to organise a rally attended by 500 participants.[119][120][121] Ghada Jamsheer, a leading woman activist[122] said the government was using the law as a "bargaining tool with opposition Islamic groups".[123]

Analysts of democratisation in the Middle East cite the Islamists' references to respect for human rights in their justification for these programmes as evidence that these groups can serve as a progressive force in the region.[124] Some Islamist parties have been particularly critical of the government's readiness to sign international treaties such as the United Nations' International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. At a parliamentary session in June 2006 to discuss ratification of the Convention, Sheikh Adel Mouwda, the former leader of salafist party, Asalah, explained the party's objections: "The convention has been tailored by our enemies, God kill them all, to serve their needs and protect their interests rather than ours. This why we have eyes from the American Embassy watching us during our sessions, to ensure things are swinging their way".[125]

Human rights[edit]Edit

Main article: Human rights in Bahrain

The period between 1975 and 1999 known as the "State Security Law Era", saw wide range of human rights violations including arbitrary arrests, detention without trial, torture and forced exile.[126][127] After the Emir Hamad Al Khalifa (now king) succeeded his father Isa Al Khalifa in 1999, he introduced wide reforms and human rights improved significantly.[128] These moves were described byAmnesty International as representing a "historic period of human rights".[82]

Human rights conditions started to decline by 2007 when torture began to be employed again.[129] In 2011, Human Rights Watchdescribed the country's human rights situation as "dismal".[130] Due to this, Bahrain lost some of the high International rankings it had gained before.[131][132][133][134][135]

In 2011, Bahrain was criticised for its crackdown on the Arab spring uprising. In September, a government appointed commissionconfirmed reports of grave human rights violations including systematic torture. The government promised to introduce reforms and avoid repeating the "painful events".[136] However, reports by human rights organisations Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch issued in April 2012 said the same violations were still happening.[137][138]

Women's rights[edit]Edit

Main article: Women's rights in Bahrain

Women's political rights in Bahrain saw an important step forward when women were granted the right to vote and stand in national elections for the first time in the 2002 election.[139] However, no women were elected to office in that year's polls. Instead, Shī'a and Sunnī Islamists dominated the election, collectively winning a majority of seats.[140] In response to the failure of women candidates, six were appointed to the Shura Council, which also includes representatives of the Kingdom's indigenous Jewish and Christian communities.[141] Dr. Nada Haffadh became the country's first female cabinet minister on her appointment as Minister of Health in 2004. The quasi-governmental women's group, the Supreme Council for Women, trained female candidates to take part in the 2006 general election. When Bahrain was elected to head the United Nations General Assembly in 2006 it appointed lawyer and women's rights activist Haya bint Rashid Al Khalifa President of the United Nations General Assembly, only the third woman in history to head the world body.[142] Female activist Ghada Jamsheer said "The government used women's rights as a decorative tool on the international level." She referred to the reforms as "artificial and marginal" and accused the government of "hinder[ing] non-governmental women societies".[123]

In 2006, Lateefa Al Gaood became the first female MP after winning by default.[143] The number rose to four after the 2011 by-elections.[144] In 2008, Houda Nonoo was appointed ambassador to the United States making her the first Jewish ambassador of any Arab country.[145] In 2011, Alice Samaan, a Christian woman was appointed ambassador to the UK.[146]


Bahraini journalists risk prosecution for offences which include "undermining" the government and religion. Self-censorship is widespread. Journalists were targeted by officials during anti-government protests in 2011. Three editors from opposition daily Al-Wasat (Bahraini newspaper) were sacked and later fined for publishing "false" news. Several foreign correspondents were expelled.[147]

Most domestic broadcasters are state-run. An independent commission, set up to look into the unrest, found that state media coverage was at times inflammatory. It said opposition groups suffered from lack of access to mainstream media, and recommended that the government "consider relaxing censorship". Bahrain will host the Saudi-financed Alarab News Channel, expected to launch in December 2012. It will be based at a planned "Media City". An opposition satellite station, Lualua TV, operates from London but has found its signals blocked.[147]

By December 2011, Bahrain had 694,000 internet users.[148] The platform "provides a welcome free space for journalists, although one that is increasingly monitored", according to Reporters Without Borders. Rigorous filtering targets political, human rights, religious material and content deemed obscene. Bloggers and other netizens were among those detained during protests in 2011.[147]


Main article: Bahrain Defence ForceSee also: Peninsula Shield Force and Naval Support Activity Bahrain[27][28]RBNS Sabha of the Royal Bahraini Navy taking part in a multilateral sea exercise

The kingdom has a small but well equipped military called the Bahrain Defence Force (BDF), numbering around 13,000 personnel.[149] The supreme commander of the Bahraini military is King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa and the deputy supreme commander is the Crown Prince,Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa.[150][151]

The BDF is primarily equipped with United States equipment, such as the F16 Fighting Falcon,F5 Freedom FighterUH60 BlackhawkM60A3 tanks, and the ex-USS Jack Williams, an Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate renamed the RBNS Sabha.[152][153] The Government of Bahrain hasclose relations with the United States, having signed a cooperative agreement with the United States Military and has provided the United States a base in Juffair since the early 1990s, although a US naval presence existed since 1948.[154] This is the home of the headquarters for Commander, United States Naval Forces Central Command (COMUSNAVCENT) / United States Fifth Fleet (COMFIFTHFLT), and around 6,000 United States military personnel.[155]

Foreign relations[edit]Edit

Main article: Foreign relations of Bahrain[29][30]President George W. Bush welcomes King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa of Bahrain to the Oval Office on 29 November 2004

Bahrain established bilateral relations with 190 countries worldwide.[156] As of 2012, Bahrain maintains a network of 25 embassies, 3 consulates and 4 permanent missions to the Arab League, United Nations and European Union respectively.[157] Bahrain also hosts 36 embassies. Bahrain plays a modest, moderating role in regional politics and adheres to the views of the Arab League on Middle East peace and Palestinian rights, it supports the two state solution.[158] Bahrain is also one of the founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council.[159] Relations with Iran tend to be tense as a result of a failed coup in 1981 which Bahrain blames Iran for and occasional claims of Iranian sovereignty over Bahrain by ultra-conservative elements in the Iranian public.[160][161]


Main article: Governorates of Bahrain

The first municipality in Bahrain was the 8-member Manama municipality which was established in July 1919.[162] Members of the municipality were elected annually; the municipality was said to have been the first municipality to be established in the Arab world.[162]The municipality was in charge of cleaning roads and renting buildings to tenants and shops. By 1929, it undertook road expansions as well as opening markets and slaughterhouses.[162] In 1958, the municipality started water purification projects.[162] In 1960, Bahrain comprised four municipalities including ManamaHiddAl Muharraq, and Riffa.[163] Over the next 30 years, the 4 municipalities were divided into 12 municipalities as settlements such as Hamad Town and Isa Town grew.[163] These municipalities were administered from Manama under a central municipal council whose members are appointed by the king.[164]

The first municipal elections to be held in Bahrain after independence in 1971, was in 2002.[165] The most recent was in 2010. The municipalities are listed below:

Map Former Municipality
1.Al Hidd
3.Western Region
4.Central Region
5.Northern Region
7.Rifa and Southern Region
8.Jidd Haffs
9.Hamad Town (not shown)
10.Isa Town
11.Hawar Islands

After 3 July 2002, Bahrain was split into five administrative governorates, each of which has its own governor.[166] These governorates are:

Map Governorates
1.Capital Governorate
2.Central Governorate
3.Muharraq Governorate
4.Northern Governorate
5.Southern Governorate


Main article: Economy of Bahrain[33][34]Manama cityline

According to a January 2006 report by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, Bahrain has the fastest growing economy in the Arab world.[167] Bahrain also has the freest economy in the Middle East and is twelfth freest overall in the world based on the 2011 Index of Economic Freedom published by theHeritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal.[168]

In 2008, Bahrain was named the world's fastest growing financial center by the City of London's Global Financial Centres Index.[167][167] Bahrain's banking and financial services sector, particularly Islamic banking, have benefited from the regional boom driven by demand for oil.[167] Petroleum production and processing account is Bahrain's most exported product, accounting for 60% of export receipts, 70% of government revenues, and 11% of GDP.[103] Aluminium production is the second most exported product, followed by finance and construction materials.[103]

Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing price of oil since 1985, for example during and following the Persian Gulf crisis of 1990–91. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to a number of multinational firms and construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. A large share of exports consist of petroleum products made from imported crude oil, which accounted for 51% of the country's imports in 2007.[169] Bahrain depends heavily on food imports to feed its growing population; it relies heavily on meat imports from Australia and also imports 75% of its total fruit consumption needs.[170][171] Since only 2.9% of the country's land is arableagriculture contributes to 0.5% of Bahrain's GDP.[171] In 2004, Bahrain signed the US-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, which will reduce certain trade barriers between the two nations.[172] Due to the combination of the global financial crisis and the recent unrest, the growth rate decreased to 2.2% which is the lowest growth rate since 1994.[173]

Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems. In 2008, the jobless figure was at 4%,[174] with women over represented at 85% of the total.[175] In 2007 Bahrain became the first Arab country to institute unemployment benefits as part of a series of labour reforms instigated under Minister of Labour, Dr. Majeed Al Alawi.[176]


Main article: Tourism in Bahrain[35][36]The cities of Muharraq (foreground) and Manama (background).

As a tourist destination, Bahrain received over eight million visitors in 2008 though the exact number varies yearly.[177] Most of these are from the surrounding Arab states although an increasing number hail from outside the region due to growing awareness of the kingdom's heritage and its higher profile as a result of the Bahrain International F1 Circuit.

The kingdom combines modern Arab culture and the archaeological legacy of five thousand years of civilisation. The island is home to forts including Qalat Al Bahrain which has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The Bahrain National Museum has artefacts from the country's history dating back to the island's first human inhabitants some 9000 years ago and the Beit Al Quran (Arabic: بيت القرآن, meaning: the House of Qur'an) is a museum that holds Islamic artefacts of the Qur'an. Some of the popular historical tourist attractions in the kingdom are the Al Khamis Mosque, which is the one of the oldest mosques in the region, the Arad fort in Muharraq,Barbar temple, which is an ancient temple from the Dilmunite period of Bahrain, as well as the A'ali Burial Mounds and the Saartemple.[178] The Tree of Life, a 400 year-old tree that grows in the Sakhir desert with no nearby water, is also a popular tourist attraction.[179]

Bird watching (primarily in the Hawar Islands), scuba diving and horse riding are popular tourist activities in Bahrain. Many tourists from nearby Saudi Arabia and across the region visit Manama primarily for the shopping malls in the capital Manama, such as the Bahrain City Centre and Seef Mall in the Seef district of Manama. The Manama Souq and Gold Souq in the old district of Manama are also popular with tourists.[180]

Since 2005, Bahrain annually hosts a festival in March, titled Spring of Culture, which features internationally renowned musicians and artists performing in concerts.[181] Manama was named the Arab Capital of Culture for 2012 and Capital of Arab Tourism for 2013 by the Arab League. The 2012 festival featured concerts starring Andrea BocelliJulio Iglesias and other musicians.[182]


Main article: Transport in Bahrain

Bahrain has one main international airport, the Bahrain International Airport (BIA) which is located on the island of Muharraq, in the north-east. The airport handled more than 100,000 flights and more than 8 million passengers in 2010.[183] Bahrain's national carrier,Gulf Air operates and bases itself in the BIA.

[37][38]The King Fahd Causeway as seen from space

Bahrain has a well-developed road network, particularly in Manama. The discovery of oil in the early 1930s accelerated the creation of multiple roads and highways in Bahrain, connecting several isolated villages, such as Budaiya, to Manama.[184]

To the east, a bridge connected Manama to Muharraq since 1929, a new causeway was built in 1941 which replaced the old wooden bridge.[184] Currently there are three modern bridges connecting the two locations.[185] Transits between the two islands peaked after the construction of the Bahrain International Airport in 1932.[184] Ring roads and highways were later built to connect Manama to the villages of the Northern Governorate and towards towns in central and southern Bahrain.

The four main islands and all the towns and villages are linked by well-constructed roads. There were 3,164 km (1,966 mi) of roadways in 2002, of which 2,433 km (1,512 mi) were paved. A causeway stretching over 2.8 km (2 mi), connect Manama with Muharraq Island, and another bridge joins Sitra to the main island. The King Fahd Causeway, measuring 24 km (15 mi), links Bahrain with the Saudi Arabian mainland via the island of Umm an-Nasan. It was completed in December 1986, and financed by Saudi Arabia. In 2008, there were 17,743,495 passengers transiting through the causeway.[186]

Bahrain's port of Mina Salman is the main seaport of the country and consists of 15 berths.[10] In 2001, Bahrain had a merchant fleet of eight ships of 1,000 GRT or over, totaling 270,784 GRT.[187] Private vehicles and taxis are the primary means of transportation in the city.[188]


Main articles: Telecommunications in Bahrain and Internet in Bahrain

The telecommunications sector in Bahrain officially started in 1981 with the establishment of Bahrain's first telecommunications company, Batelco and until 2004, it monopolised the sector. In 1981, there were more than 45,000 telephones in use in the country. By 1999, Batelco had more than 100,000 mobile contracts.[189] In 2002, under pressure from international bodies, Bahrain implemented its telecommunications law which included the establishment of an independent Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA).[189] In 2004, Zain (a rebranded version of MTC Vodafone) started operations in Bahrain and in 2010 VIVA (owned by STC Group) become the third company to provide mobile services.[190]

Bahrain has been connected to the internet since 1995 with the country's domain suffix is '.bh'. The country's connectivity score (a statistic which measures both Internet access and fixed and mobile telephone lines) is 210.4 percent per person, while the regional average in the Gulf States is 135.37 percent.[191] The number of Bahraini internet users has risen from 40,000 in 2000[192] to 250,000 in 2008,[193] or from 5.95 to 33 percent of the population. As of August 2013, the TRA has licensed 22 Internet Service Providers.[194]


Main articles: Demographics of BahrainReligion in Bahrain, and Ethnic, cultural and religious groups of Bahrain{| style="border-collapse:collapse;width:269px;" |- style="background-position:initialinitial;background-repeat:initialinitial;" ! colspan="5"|Religion in Bahrain 2010 |- style="font-size:10px;height:4px;" | style="padding:0px4px;"| | style="padding:0px4px;text-align:right;"| | style="width:100px;"| | style="padding:0px4px;width:5em;text-align:right;"|[1] | style="padding:0px4px;text-align:right;"| |- | colspan="2" style="padding-left:0.4em;padding-right:0.4em;min-width:8em;"|Islam | style="width:100px;border-left-style:solid;border-left-width:1px;border-left-color:silver;border-right-style:solid;border-right-width:1px;border-right-color:silver;"|   | align="right" colspan="2" style="padding-left:0.4em;padding-right:0.4em;"|70.2% |- | colspan="2" style="padding-left:0.4em;padding-right:0.4em;min-width:8em;"|Other | style="width:100px;border-left-style:solid;border-left-width:1px;border-left-color:silver;border-right-style:solid;border-right-width:1px;border-right-color:silver;"|   | align="right" colspan="2" style="padding-left:0.4em;padding-right:0.4em;"|29.8% |}

In 2010, Bahrain's population grew to 1.2 million, of which 568,399 were Bahraini and 666,172 were non-nationals.[1] It had risen from 1.05 million (517,368 non-nationals) in 2007, the year when Bahrain's population crossed the one million mark.[195] Though a majority of the population is ethnically Arab, a sizeable number of people from South Asia live in the country. In 2008, approximately 290,000 Indian nationals lived in Bahrain, making them the single largest expatriate community in the country.[196][197]

Bahrain is the fourth most densely populated sovereign state in the world with a population density of 1,646 people per km2 in 2010.[1]The only sovereign states with larger population densities are city states. Much of this population is concentrated in the north of the country with the Southern Governorate being the least densely populated part.[1] The north of the country is so urbanised that it is considered by some to be one large metropolitan area.[198]

The state religion of Bahrain is Islam and most Bahraini citizens are Muslim. There are no official figures for the proportion of Shia andSunni among the Muslims of Bahrain, but approximately 66-70% percent of Bahraini Muslims are Shias.[199][200][201][202] There is a native Christian community in Bahrain. Christian Bahraini citizens number 1,000 people.[203][note 1] The majority of Christian Bahraini citizens tend to be Orthodox Christians, with the largest church by membership being the Greek Orthodox Church. They enjoy equal religious and social freedom, and Bahrain has many Christian members in the Bahraini government. Expatriate Christians make up the majority of Christians in Bahrain, while native Christian Bahrainis (who hold Bahraini citizenship) make up a smaller community. Alees Samaan, the current Bahraini ambassador to the United Kingdom is a native Christian. Bahrain also has a native Jewish community numbering thirty-seven Bahraini citizens.[204] Various sources cite Bahrain's native Jewish community as being from 36 to 50 people,[205] Bahraini Jews are active in politics. A Jewish businessman, Ebrahim Daoud Nonoo, was elected in the appointed upper house of parliament (Shura Council). In 2008, the Jewish Bahraini politician, Houda Nonoo was named Bahrain's ambassador to the United States.[206] Bahrain also has a native Bahá'í community. Baha'is constitute approximately 1% of Bahrain's total population.[207]

[39][40]Gudaibiya mosque, in Manama

Due to an influx of immigrants and guest workers from non-Muslim countries, such as India,Philippines and Sri Lanka, the overall percentage of Muslims in the country has declined in recent years.[208] According to the 2001 census, 81.2% of Bahrain's population was Muslim, 10% were Christian, and 9.8% practised Hinduism or other religions.[103] The 2010 census records that the Muslim proportion had fallen to 70.2% (the 2010 census did not differentiate between the non-Muslim religions).[1] Bahrain is unwilling to accept Syrian refugees.[209]


Arabic is the official language of Bahrain, though English is widely used.[210] Bahrani Arabicis the most widely spoken dialect of the Arabic language, though this differs slightly from standard Arabic. Arabic plays an important role in political life, as, according to article 57 (c)of Bahrain's constitution, an MP must be fluent in Arabic to stand for parliament. Among the non-Bahraini population, many people speak Persian, the official language of Iran, or Urdu, the official language of Pakistan.[210] Malayalam and Hindi is also widely spoken in the Indian community.[210] Many commercial institutions and road signs are bilingual, displaying both English and Arabic.[211]


Main article: Education in BahrainSee also: List of universities in Bahrain[41][42]Female students at the University of Bahrain dressed in traditional garb

Education is compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 14.[212] Education is free for Bahraini citizens in public schools, with the Bahraini Ministry of Education providing free textbooks. Coeducation is not used in public schools, with boys and girls segregated into separate schools.[213]

At the beginning of the 20th century, Qur'anic schools (Kuttab) were the only form of education in Bahrain.[214] They were traditional schools aimed at teaching children and youth the reading of the Qur'an. After World War I, Bahrain became open to western influences, and a demand for modern educational institutions appeared. 1919 marked the beginning of modern public school system in Bahrain when the Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifia Schoolfor boys opened in Muharraq.[214] In 1926, the Education Committee opened the second public school for boys in Manama, and in 1928 the first public school for girls was opened in Muharraq.[214] As of 2011, there are a total of 126,981 students studying in public schools.[215]

In 2004, King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa introduced the "King Hamad Schools of Future" project that uses Information Communication Technology to support K–12 education in Bahrain.[216] The project's objective is to connect all schools within the kingdom with the Internet.[217] In addition to British intermediate schools, the island is served by the Bahrain School (BS). The BS is a United States Department of Defense school that provides a K-12 curriculum including International Baccalaureate offerings. There are also private schools that offer either the IB Diploma Programme or United Kingdom's A-Levels.

Bahrain also encourages institutions of higher learning, drawing on expatriate talent and the increasing pool of Bahrain nationals returning from abroad with advanced degrees. The University of Bahrain was established for standard undergraduate and graduate study, and the King Abdulaziz University College of Health Sciences, operating under the direction of the Ministry of Health, trains physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and paramedics. The 2001 National Action Charter paved the way for the formation of private universities such as the Ahlia University in Manama and University College of Bahrain in Saar. The Royal University for Women (RUW), established in 2005, was the first private, purpose-built, international University in Bahrain dedicated solely to educating women. The University of LondonExternal has appointed MCG (Management Consultancy Group) as the regional representative office in Bahrain for distance learning programmes.[218] MCG is one of the oldest private institutes in the country. Institutes have also opened which educate South Asian students, such as the Pakistan Urdu School, Bahrain and the Indian School, Bahrain. A few prominent institutions are DePaul UniversityBentley University, the Ernst & Young Training Institute, NYIT and the Birla Institute of Technology International Centre In 2004, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) setup a constituent medical university in the country. In addition to the Arabian Gulf UniversityAMA International University and the College of Health Sciences, these are the only medical schools in Bahrain.


Bahrain has a universal health care system, dating back to 1960.[219] Government-provided health care is free to Bahraini citizens and heavily subsidised for non-Bahrainis. Healthcare expenditure accounted for 4.5% of Bahrain's GDP, according to the World Health Organisation. Bahraini physicians and nurses form a majority of the country's workforce in the health sector, unlike neighbouring Gulf states.[220] The first hospital in Bahrain was the American Mission Hospital, which opened in 1893 as a dispensary.[221] The first public hospital, and also tertiary hospital, to open in Bahrain was the Salmaniya Medical Complex, in the Salmaniya district of Manama, in 1957.[222] Private hospitals are also present throughout the country, such as the International Hospital of Bahrain.

The life expectancy in Bahrain is 73 for males and 76 for females. Compared to many countries in the region, the prevalence of AIDSand HIV is relatively low.[223] Malaria and tuberculosis (TB) do not constitute major problems in Bahrain as neither disease is indigenous to the country. As a result, cases of malaria and TB have declined in recent decades with cases of contractions amongst Bahraini nationals becoming rare.[223] The Ministry of Health sponsors regular vaccination campaigns against TB and other diseases such as hepatitis B.[223][224]

Bahrain is currently suffering from an obesity epidemic as 28.9% of all males and 38.2% of all females are classified as obese.[225]Bahrain also has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes in the world (5th place), with more than 15% of the Bahraini population suffering from the disease, and accounting for 5% of deaths in the country.[226] Cardiovascular diseases account for 32% of all deaths in Bahrain, being the number one cause of death in the country (the second being cancer).[227] Sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemiaare prevalent in the country, with a study concluding that 18% of Bahrainis are carriers of sickle cell anaemia while 24% are carriers of thalassaemia.[228]


Main article: Culture of Bahrain[43][44]Shia Muslims in Bahrain strike their chests during Muharram in remembrance ofImam Hussain

Bahrain is sometimes described as "Middle East lite"[229] due to its combination of modern infrastructure with a Persian Gulf identity. While Islam is the main religion, Bahrainis are known for their tolerance towards the practice of other faiths.[230]

Rules regarding female attire are generally relaxed compared to regional neighbours; the traditional attire of women usually include the hijab or the abaya.[100] Although the traditional male attire is the thobe which also includes traditional headdresses such as the Keffiyeh,Ghutra and Agal, Western clothing is common in the country.[100]

Bahrain legalized homosexuality in 1976, including same-sex sodomy.[231] Another facet of Bahrain's openness is the country's status as the most prolific book publisher in the Arab world, with 132 books published in 2005 for a population of 700,000. In comparison, the 2005 average for the entire Arab world was seven books published per one million people, according to the United Nations Development Programme.[232]


Main article: Bahraini art[45][46]wind tower in Bahrain.

The modern art movement in the country officially emerged in the 1950s, culminating in the establishment of an art society. Expressionism and surrealism, as well as calligraphic art are the popular forms of art in the country. Abstract expressionism has gained popularity in recent decades.[233] Pottery-making and textile weaving are also popular products that were widely made in Bahraini villages.[233] Arabic calligraphy grew in popularity as the Bahraini governmentwas an active patron in Islamic art, culminating in the establishment of an Islamic museum, Beit Al Quran.[233] The Bahrain national museum houses a permanent contemporary artexhibition.[234] The architecture of Bahrain is similar to that of its Gulf neighbours. The wind tower, which generates natural ventilation in a house, is a common sight on old buildings, particularly in the old districts of Manama and Muharraq.[235]


Main article: Literature of Bahrain

Literature retains a strong tradition in the country; most traditional writers and poets write in theclassical Arabic style. In recent years, the number of younger poets influenced by western literature are rising, most writing in free verse and often including political or personal content.[236] Ali Al Shargawi, a decorated longtime poet, was described in 2011 by Al Shorfa as the literary icon of Bahrain.[237]

In literature, Bahrain was the site of the ancient land of Dilmun mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Legend also states that it was the location of the Garden of Eden.[238][239]


Main article: Music of Bahrain

The music style in Bahrain is similar to that of its neighbours. The Khaliji style of music, which is folk music, is popular in the country. The sawt style of music, which involves a complex form of urban music, performed by an Oud (plucked lute), a violin and mirwas (a drum), is also popular in Bahrain.[240] Ali Bahar was one of the most famous singers in Bahrain. He performed his music with his BandAl-Ekhwa (The Brothers). Bahrain was also the site of the first recording studio amongst the Gulf states.[240]


Main article: Sport in Bahrain

Association football is the most popular sport in Bahrain.[100] Bahrain's national football team has competed multiple times at the Asian CupArab Nations Cup and played in the FIFA World Cup qualifiers, though it has never qualified for the World Cup.[241] Bahrain has its own top-tier domestic professional football league, the Bahraini Premier LeagueBasketballRugby and horse riding are also widely popular in the country.

Bahrain has competed in six Summer Olympicsdebuting in the 1984 Los Angeles Summer Olympics.[242] Bahrain has only won one Olympic medal in its history, that being a bronze medal won by Maryam Yusuf Jamal in the women's 1500 metres race at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London.[243] Jamal is the first woman from any Gulf nation to win an Olympic medal.[244] Prior to the 2012 summer Olympics, the closest attempt to Bahrain winning an Olympic medal was via Rashid Ramzi winning the men's 1,500 metresrace at the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. However, his medal was stripped after he failed a drug test the following year.[245] Bahrain has competed in every Summer Olympic since 1984 but has never competed in the Winter Olympics.

[47][48]The podium ceremony at the 2007 Bahrain Grand Prix

Bahrain has a Formula One race-track, which hosted the inaugural Gulf Air Bahrain Grand Prixon 4 April 2004, the first in an Arab country. This was followed by the Bahrain Grand Prix in 2005. Bahrain hosted the opening Grand Prix of the 2006 season on 12 March of that year. Both the above races were won by Fernando Alonso of Renault. The race has since been hosted annually, except for 2011 when it was cancelled due to ongoing anti-government protests.[246] The latest edition of the Bahrain Grand Prix was the 2012 Bahrain Grand Prix, that occurred despite concerns of the safety of the teams and the ongoing protests in the country.[247] The decision to hold the race despite ongoing protests and violence[248] has been described as "controversial" by Al Jazeera English,[249] CNN,[250] AFP[251] and Sky News.[252] The Independent named it "one of the most controversial in the history of the sport".[253]

In 2006, Bahrain also hosted its inaugural Australian V8 Supercar event dubbed the "Desert 400". The V8s returned every November to the Sakhir circuit until 2010, in which it was the second event of the series. The series has not returned since. The Bahrain International Circuit also features a full-length drag strip where the Bahrain Drag Racing Club has organised invitational events featuring some of Europe's top drag racing teams to try to raise the profile of the sport in the Middle East.[254]

In April 2013 2 Zimbabwean ex-pats based in Bahrain became the first men to official circumnavigate the Bahraini mainland and Hawar Islands unassisted in single man kayaks taking 6 days. Paul Curwen and Chris Bloodworth undertook their expedition to raise funds for locally based and Zimbabwean charities.


On 1 September 2006, Bahrain changed its weekend from being Thursdays and Fridays to Fridays and Saturdays, in order to have a day of the weekend shared with the rest of the world. Notable holidays in the country are listed below:

Date English name Local (Arabic) name Description
1 January New Year's Day رأس السنة الميلادية The Gregorian New Year's Day, celebrated by most parts of the world.
1 May Labour Day يوم العمال Locally called "Eid Al Oumal" (Workers' Day), it is an annual holiday that celebrates the achievements of workers.
16 December National Day اليوم الوطني National Day of Bahrain.
17 December Accession Day يوم الجلوس Accession Day for the late Amir Sh. Isa Bin Salman Al Khalifa
1st Muharram Islamic New Year رأس السنة الهجرية Islamic New Year (also known as: Hijri New Year).
9th, 10thMuharram Day of Ashura عاشوراء Represent the 9th and 10th day of the Hijri month of Muharram. Coincide with the memory of the martyrdom of Imam Hussein.
12th Rabiul Awwal Prophet Muhammad's birthday المولد النبوي Commemorates ProphetMuhammad's birthday, celebrated in most parts of the Muslim world.
1st, 2nd, 3rdShawwal Little Feast عيد الفطر Commemorates end of Ramadan.
9th Zulhijjah Arafat Day يوم عرفة Commemoration of Muhammad's final sermon and completion of the message of Islam.
10th, 11th, 12th Zulhijjah Feast of the Sacrifice عيد الأضحى Commemorates Ibrahim's willingness to sacrifice his son. Also known as the Big Feast (celebrated from the 10th to 13th).

See also[edit]Edit

[49] Geography portal
[50] Asia portal
[51] Middle East portal
[52] Bahrain portal


  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g "General Tables". Bahraini Census 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d "Bahrain". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  3. Jump up^ "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  4. Jump up^ Baxter, Elsa (13 June 2009). "Project overview: Qatar-Bahrain Causeway". Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  5. Jump up^
  6. Jump up^ The Consolidation of Iran's frontier on the Persian Gulf in the nineteenth century, Lawrence G. Potter, War and Peace in Qajar Persia: Implications Past and Present, ed. Roxane Farmanfarmaian, (Routledge, 2008), 132.
  7. Jump up^ CNN Wire Staff. "Bahrain says ban on protests is response to rising violence". CNN. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
  8. Jump up^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bahrain – International Organisations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bahrain. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  9. Jump up^ "Bahrain Becomes a 'Major Non-NATO Ally'". Voice of America. 26 October 2001. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  10. Jump up to:a b "Bahrain's economy praised for diversity and sustainability". Bahrain Economic Development Board. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  11. Jump up^ "Qal'at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 15 July 2005. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  12. Jump up^ "Pearling, testimony of an island economy". World Heritage Committee, UNESCO. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  13. Jump up^ "Bahrain – Home of Motorsport in the Middle East".Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
  14. Jump up to:a b Houtsma, M. Th (1960). "Baḥrayn". Encyclopedia of Islam I. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 941.
  15. Jump up^ Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7.
  16. Jump up^ First encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936. E.J. Brill. 1993. p. 584. ISBN 978-90-04-09796-4.
  17. Jump up to:a b Faroughy, Abbas. The Bahrein Islands (750–1951): A Contribution to the Study of Power Politics in the Persian Gulf.Verry, Fisher & Co. (New York), 1951.
  18. Jump up^ Rice, Michael (1994). The Archaeology of the Arabian Gulf, c. 5000–323 BC. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-03268-7.
  19. Jump up to:a b c d Rentz, G. "al- Baḥrayn". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 15 March 2008 [1]
  20. Jump up^ "Qal'at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun". UNESCO. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  21. Jump up^ Larsen, Curtis E. (1984). Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarchaeology of an Ancient Society. University of Chicago Press. pp. 52–55. ISBN 978-0-226-46906-5.
  22. Jump up^ Mojtahed-Zadeh & ‏ 1999, p. 119.
  23. Jump up^ Larsen, Chris E. (1984). Life and land use on the Bahrain Islands. University of Chicago Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-226-46906-5.
  24. Jump up^ Federal Research Division (2004). Bahrain. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4191-0874-7.
  25. Jump up to:a b c d Hoyland, Robert G. (2001). Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam. Routledge. p. 28.ISBN 978-0-415-19535-5.
  26. Jump up^ Choksy, Jamsheed Kairshasp (1997). Conflict and Cooperation: Zoroastrian Subalterns and Muslim Elites in Medieval Iranian Society. Columbia University Press. p. 75.ISBN 978-0-231-10684-9.
  27. Jump up to:a b Al-Tajir, Mahdí Abdalla (1982). Language and Linguistic Origins in Baḥrain: The Baḥārnah Dialect of Arabic. Taylor & Francis. pp. 16, 29. ISBN 978-0-7103-0024-9.
  28. Jump up^ A letter purported to be from Muhammad to al-Tamimi is preserved at the Beit al-Qur'an Museum in Hoora, Bahrain.
  29. Jump up^ "The letters of the Prophet Muhammed beyond Arabia". Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  30. Jump up^ Cyril Glasse, New Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 245. Rowman Altamira, 2001. ISBN 0-7591-0190-6
  31. Jump up^ "Black Stone of Mecca"Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 25 June 2007.
  32. Jump up^ Cole, Juan (2002). Sacred Space And Holy War: The Politics, Culture and History of Shi'ite Islam. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-736-9.
  33. Jump up^ Smith, G.R. "Uyūnids". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 16 March 2008 [2]
  34. Jump up^ Cole, Juan R. I. "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300–1800", International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2. (May 1987), pp. 177–203, at p. 179, through JSTOR. [3]
  35. Jump up^ Cole, Juan R. I. "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300–1800", p. 186, through JSTOR. [4]
  36. Jump up^ Cole, Juan R. I. "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300–1800", p. 198.
  37. Jump up^ Cole, Juan R. I. Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300–1800, p. 194
  38. Jump up^ Cole, Juan R. I. "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300–1800", p. 187
  39. Jump up to:a b McCoy, Eric Andrew (2008). Iranians in Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates: Migration, Minorities, and Identities in the Persian Gulf Arab States. ProQuest. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-549-93507-0.
  40. Jump up^ Slot, B. (1991). The Origins of Kuwait. BRILL. p. 110.ISBN 978-90-04-09409-3.
  41. Jump up^ Ownership deeds to a palm garden on the island of Sitra, Bahrain, which was sold by Mariam bint Ahmed Al Sindi to Shaikh Salama Bin Saif Al Utbi, dated 1699–1111 Hijri,
  42. Jump up^ Wilkinson, John Craven (1991). Arabia's frontiers: the story of Britain's boundary drawing in the desert. I.B. Tauris. p. 44.
  43. Jump up^ Rihani, Ameen Fares (1930). Around the coasts of Arabia. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 297.
  44. Jump up^ Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, Geographical, Volume 1, 1905
  45. Jump up^ Background Notes: Mideast, March, 2011. US State Department. 2011. ISBN 1-59243-126-7.
  46. Jump up^ Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, John Gordon Lorimer, Volume 1 Historical, Part 1, p1000, 1905
  47. Jump up^ Onley, James. The Politics of Protection in the Persian Gulf: The Arab Rulers and the British Resident in the Nineteenth Century, Exeter University, 2004 p44
  48. Jump up^ Al-Baharna, Husain (1968). Legal Status of the Arabian Gulf States: A Study of Their Treaty Relations and Their International Problems. Manchester University Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-7190-0332-6.
  49. Jump up to:a b Smart, J. R.; Smith, G. Rex; Pridham, B. R. (2004). New Arabian Studies. University of Exeter Press. pp. 51, 52, 53, 67, 68. ISBN 978-0-85989-706-8.
  50. Jump up^ Pridham, B. R.; University of Exeter. Centre for Arab Gulf Studies (1985). The Arab Gulf and the West. Taylor & Francis. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7099-4011-1.
  51. Jump up to:a b c Wilson, Arnold T. (2011). The Persian Gulf: A historical sketch from the earliest times to the beginning of the twentieth century. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-84105-7.
  52. Jump up to:a b c Mojtahed-Zadeh & ‏ 1999, p. 130.
  53. Jump up^ Kinninmont, Jane (28 February 2011). "Bahrain's Re-Reform Movement"Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  54. Jump up to:a b Abedin, Mahan (9 December 2004). "All at sea over 'the Gulf'"Asia Times Online. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  55. Jump up^ "Near & Middle East Titles: Bahrain Government Annual Reports 1924–1970". Cambridge Archives Editions. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  56. Jump up^ "Bahrain Education". Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  57. Jump up^ "Treasure troves of history and diversity". Gulf News. January 25, 2013
  58. Jump up to:a b c d "Bahrain:"How was separated from Iran" ?". Iran Chamber Society. Retrieved 17 June 2012. Based on extracts from Mojtahedzadeh, Piruz (1995). "Bahrain: the land of political movements". Rahavard, a Persian Journal of Iranian Studies XI(39).
  59. Jump up^ "The Incessant Lure of Kuwait's Oil"The New York Times. 13 January 1991. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  60. Jump up^ "Bahrain". Archived from the originalon 3 October 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  61. Jump up^ Mulligan, William E. (July/August 1976). "Air Raid! A Sequel"Saudi Aramco World. Archived from the originalon 2 October 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  62. Jump up to:a b Hamza, Abdul Aziz (2009). Tears on an Island: A History of Disasters in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Al Waad. p. 165.ISBN 99901-92-22-7.
  63. Jump up to:a b Breger, Sarah (2011). "The Unlikely Emissary: Houda Nonoo"Moment. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  64. Jump up to:a b Ratzlav-Katz, Nissan (14 August 2008). "The King of Bahrain Wants the Jews Back"Israel National News. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  65. Jump up to:a b Curtis, Adam (11 May 2012). "If you take my advice – I'd repress them"BBC News. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  66. Jump up^ O'Sullivan, Edmund (17 March 2011). "Bahrain's journey from kingdom to province"MEED. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  67. Jump up^ Al-Saud, Faisal bin Salman (2004). Iran, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf: Power Politics in Transition. I. B. Tauris. pp. 40–42.ISBN 978-1-86064-881-6.
  68. Jump up^ O'Rourke, Breffni (15 November 2007). "Iran: Ahmadinejad's Bahrain Visit New Piece In Complex Pattern". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  69. Jump up^ Cooley, John K. (7 April 1970). "" Independence or Iran?" UN asks Bahrainis"Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  70. Jump up^ Bloomfield, Lincoln P. and Moulton, Allen (1999). "Cascon Case BAH: Bahrain 1970". Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  71. Jump up^ "UN Report no. 9772". UN. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  72. Jump up^ Kingdom of Bahrain
  73. Jump up^ Country independence dates
  74. Jump up^ The Middle East and North Africa 2004. Routledge. 2003. p. 225. ISBN 1-85743-184-7.
  75. Jump up^ "Bahrain"National Post. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  76. Jump up^ Talbott, Strobe (25 October 1982). "Gulf States: Stay Just on the Horizon, Please"Time. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  77. Jump up^ Darwish, Adel (1 March 1999). "Bahrain remains stable despite arson attacks that took place in the country"The Middle East.  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  78. Jump up^ "The Rich/Poor & Sunni/Shiite Rift"APS Diplomat.  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). 18 March 2002. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  79. Jump up^ Darwish, Adel (March 1999). "Rebellion in Bahrain"Middle East Review of International Affairs 3 (1). Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  80. Jump up^ Malik, Adnan (14 December 2002). "Bahrain's monarch opens parliament after a span of nearly 30 years". Associated Press (via HighBeam Research). Archived from the original|archiveurl= requires |url= (help) on 4 October 2012.
  81. Jump up^ "Country Theme: Elections: Bahrain"UNDP-Programme on Governance in the Arab Region. 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  82. Jump up to:a b Bahrain: Promising human rights reform must continue(PDF). Amnesty International. 13 March 2001. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  83. Jump up^ "The Kingdom of Bahrain: The Constitutional Changes".The Estimate: Political and Security Analysis of the Islamic World and its Neighbors. 22 February 2002. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  84. Jump up to:a b c The Middle East and North Africa 2004. Europa Publications. 2003. p. 232. ISBN 1-85743-184-7.
  85. Jump up^ "To Implement the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, and for Other Purposes". White House Archives. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  86. Jump up^ "Bahrain declares state of emergency after unrest". Reuters. 15 March 2011. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  87. Jump up to:a b c d e "Report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry". BICI.
  88. Jump up^ Law, Bill (6 April 2011). "Police Brutality Turns Bahrain Into 'Island of Fear'Crossing Continents (via BBC News). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  89. Jump up^ Press release (30 March 2011). "USA Emphatic Support to Saudi Arabia"Zayd Alisa (via Scoop). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  90. Jump up^ Cockburn, Patrick (18 March 2011). "The Footage That Reveals the Brutal Truth About Bahrain's Crackdown – Seven Protest Leaders Arrested as Video Clip Highlights Regime's Ruthless Grip on Power"The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  91. Jump up^ "Bahrain inquiry confirms rights abuses". Al Jazeera English. 23 November 2011. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  92. Jump up^ "Applying pressure on Bahrain"The Washington Post. 10 May 2011. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  93. Jump up^ Carlstrom, Gregg (23 April 2012). "Bahrain court delays ruling in activists case". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  94. Jump up^ Solomon, Erika (11 June 2011). "Thousands rally for reform in Bahrain". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012.
  95. Jump up^ "Bahrain protesters join anti-government march in Manama". BBC News. 9 March 2012. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  96. Jump up^ "Mass pro-democracy protest rocks Bahrain". Reuters. 9 March 2012. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012.
  97. Jump up^ "Bahrain live blog 25 Jan 2012". Al Jazeera. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  98. Jump up^ "Heavy police presence blocks Bahrain protests". Al Jazeera. 15 February 2012. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  99. Jump up^ "Bahrain Geography and Population". Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  100. Jump up to:a b c d e "Bahrain". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  101. Jump up^ Kingdom of Bahrain National Report (Report). International Hydrographic Organization. 2013. p. 1. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  102. Jump up^ Abdulla, Mohammed Ahmed; Zain al-'Abdeen, Bashir (2009).تاريخ البحرين الحديث (1500-2002) [Modern History of Bahrain (1500-2002)]. Bahrain: Historical Studies Centre, University of Bahrain. pp. 26, 29, 59. ISBN 978-99901-06-75-6.
  103. Jump up to:a b c d "CIA World Factbook, "Bahrain"". Archivedfrom the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  104. Jump up^ Alsharhan, A. S. (2001). Hydrogeology of an Arid Region: The Arabian Gulf and Adjoining Areas. Elsevier. pp. 188–190.ISBN 978-0-444-50225-4.
  105. Jump up^ Hasanean, H.M. "Middle East Meteorology". International Pacific Research Center. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  106. Jump up^ Martin-King, Philippa (June 2011). "Intelligent buildings".International Electrotechnical Commission. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  107. Jump up^ "Bahrain Weather". Bahrain Weather. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  108. Jump up^ "World Weather Information Service – Bahrain/Manama". World Meteorological Organization. 23 July 2012.
  109. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Towards a Bahrain National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Fuller & Associates. 2005. pp. 22, 23, 28.
  110. Jump up to:a b "Country profile: Bahrain". Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  111. Jump up^ "Bahrain News — The Protests"New York Times. 24 June 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  112. Jump up^ "Bahrain Shia demand cabinet change". Al Jazeera English. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  113. Jump up^ "Bahrain"International Foundation for Electoral Systems. 26 July 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  114. Jump up^ "Bahrain – News Archive". Election Guide. 24 September 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  115. Jump up^ "Bahrain holds vote to fill seats vacated during unrest"Al-Ahram/Thomson Reuters. 24 September 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  116. Jump up^ Bronner, Ethan (24 September 2011). "Bahrain Vote Erupts in Violence"The New York TimesArchived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  117. Jump up^ Krane, Jim (26 November 2006). "Islamists Dominate Bahrain Elections"Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  118. Jump up^ Katja Niethammar (2006). "Voices in Parliament, Debates in Majalis, Banners on the Street: Avenues of Political Participation in Bahrain". Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies.European University Institute. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  119. Jump up^ Sandy Russell Jones (2007). "The Battle over Family Law in Bahrain"Middle East Research and Information Project. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  120. Jump up^ Hamada, Suad (5 June 2009). "Religion: New Family Law for Sunni Women in Bahrain Not for Shiites"Inter Press Service. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  121. Jump up^ Human Rights Without Frontiers (28 October 2011). Which Future For Bahrain? (Report). International Center for Law and Religion Studies. pp. 8–9. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  122. Jump up^ MacLeod, Scott (14 May 2006). "Ghada Jamsheer: Activist".Time. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  123. Jump up to:a b Ghada Jamsheer (18 December 2006). "Women in Bahrain and the Struggle Against Artificial Reforms". Women Living Under Muslim Laws. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  124. Jump up^ "Islamist Terrorism and Democracy in the Middle East"The New Republic. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  125. Jump up^ Rights push by BahrainGulf Daily News, 14 June 2006
  126. Jump up^ "Bahrain Sa'id 'Abd al-Rasul al-Iskafi"Amnesty International. 27 September 1995. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  127. Jump up^ "Routine abuse, routine denial". Human Rights Watch. 1 June 1997. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  128. Jump up^ "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices"United States Department of State. 4 March 2002. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  129. Jump up^ Summary, "Torture Redux: The Revival of Physical Coercion during Interrogations in Bahrain", published by Human Rights Watch 8 February 2010, ISBN 1-56432-597-0, accessed 19 June 2011
  130. Jump up^ "World Report 2011: Bahrain". Human Rights Watch. 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  131. Jump up^ "Freedom in Bahrain 2011"Freedom House. 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  132. Jump up^ Freedom of the Net 2011 – Bahrain part (Report). Freedom House. 2011.
  133. Jump up^ "RWB Press Freedom Index 2002"Reporters Without Borders. 2002. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  134. Jump up^ "RWB Press Freedom Index 2010"Reporters Without Borders. 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  135. Jump up^ "FH Press Freedom Index 2011"Freedom House. 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  136. Jump up^ Elizabeth Dickinson (23 November 2011). "Bahrain commission issues brutal critique of Arab Spring crackdown"The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  137. Jump up^ Payne, Ed (17 April 2012). "Amnesty report: Bahrain reforms are 'flawed,' 'inadequate'". CNN. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  138. Jump up^ "Bahrain police 'continue to torture detainees'". BBC. 29 April 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  139. Jump up^ MacFarquhar, Neil (22 May 2002). "In Bahrain, Women Run, Women Vote, Women Lose"The New York Times. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  140. Jump up^ Darwish, Adel (26 October 2002). "Islamists gain majority in Bahrain"The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  141. Jump up^ Jew and Christian amongst 10 women in Shura councilMiddle East Online
  142. Jump up^ 'UN General Assembly to be headed by its third-ever woman president', United Nations, 8 June 2006
  143. Jump up^ Toumi, Habib (27 November 2006). "Women fail to add to the seat won unopposed"Gulf News. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  144. Jump up^ Toumi, Habib (8 October 2011). "Bahrain women MPs set to make a difference as parliament reconvenes"Gulf News. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  145. Jump up^ "Bahrain names Jewish ambassador". BBC News. 29 May 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  146. Jump up^ Toumi, Habib (27 May 2012). "Bahrain urges greater global religious tolerance"Gulf News. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  147. Jump up to:a b c
  148. Jump up^
  149. Jump up^ "Bahrain"The 2011 US Department of State Background NotesUnited States Department of State. Retrieved 2 March 2012. "The Bahrain Defense Force (BDF) numbers about 13,000 personnel."
  150. Jump up^ "Crown Prince Biography". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bahrain. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  151. Jump up^ "HRH Prince Salman Exchanges Letters With BDF Chief Commander"Bahrain News Agency. 4 June 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  152. Jump up^ Singh Singh, Ravi Shekhar (2005). Asian Strategic And Military Perspective. Lancer Publishers. p. 368. ISBN 978-81-7062-245-1.
  153. Jump up^ "USS Jack Williams (FFG 24)". Navsource Online. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  154. Jump up^ "NSA Bahrain History". Naval Support Activity Bahrain. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  155. Jump up^ "Welcome to Naval Support Activity Bahrain". Commander, Navy Installations Command. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  156. Jump up^ "Bilateral Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bahrain. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  157. Jump up^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bahrain". Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  158. Jump up^ "Palestine Peace Process". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bahrain. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  159. Jump up^ "Member States of the GCC". GCC. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  160. Jump up^ "A Bahraini Hunger Strike And An Inhumane Argument Read more: A Bahraini Hunger Strike And An Inhumane Argument".NYU Local. 13 April 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  161. Jump up^ "Bahrain slams Iran's claims, suspends gas deal talks".Xinhua News Agency. 20 February 2009. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  162. Jump up to:a b c d "History of Municipalities". Ministry of Municipalities Affairs and Urban Planning – Kingdom of Bahrain. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  163. Jump up to:a b "Governorates of Bahrain". Statoids. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  164. Jump up^ "Bahrain Government". Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the United Nations. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  165. Jump up^ "Three Polls, Three Different Approaches". The Estimate. 17 May 2002. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  166. Jump up^ "Decree No.17 for 2002" (PDF). Capital Governorate. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  167. Jump up to:a b c d Bahrain expected to bustle Arabian Business, 1 February 2007
  168. Jump up^ Index of Economic Freedom Heritage Foundation
  169. Jump up^ The Report: Bahrain 2010. Oxford Business Group. p. 25.ISBN 978-1-907065-22-4.
  170. Jump up^ "Bahrain fully stocked for Eid al-Adha: official"Al Shorfa. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  171. Jump up to:a b "Bahrain food import bill to zoom 128pc"Daily Tribune. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  172. Jump up^ "Bahrain profile: Timeline". BBC News. 3 October 2012. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  173. Jump up^ Dokoupil, Martin (21 March 2012). "Bahrain economy slows to 1.3 pct q/q growth in Q4". Reuters. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  174. Jump up^ "Local News » JOBLESS RATE 3.8PC". Gulf Daily News. 4 August 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  175. Jump up^ "Khaleej Times Online – 85pc unemployed in Bahrain are females". 4 August 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  176. Jump up^ Minister lashes out at parties opposed to unemployment benefit scheme Gulf News, 22 June 2007
  177. Jump up^ "Tourism sector performance"Economic Development Board – Bahrain. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  178. Jump up^ "Popular Attractions". Bahrain Guide. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  179. Jump up^ "Tree of Life, Bahrain". Wondermondo. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  180. Jump up^ "Tourism". Bahraini Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  181. Jump up^ "Bahrain's 'Spring of Culture Festival' opens". TradeArabia. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  182. Jump up^ "Bahrain Spring of Culture 2012". TimeOutBahrain. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  183. Jump up^ "Traffic Statistics: December 2010". Civil Aviations Affairs, Bahrain. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  184. Jump up to:a b c Elsheshtawy, Yasser (2008). The evolving Arab city: tradition, modernity and urban development. Routledge. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-134-12821-1.
  185. Jump up^ Al A'Ali, Mohammed (18 March 2012). "Seaview blow for Manama"Gulf Daily News. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  186. Jump up^ "Passenger Statistics". Kinf Fahed Causeway Authority. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  187. Jump up^ "Bahrain – Transportation". Encyclopedia of the Nations. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  188. Jump up^ "Getting around Bahrain". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  189. Jump up to:a b Group, Oxford Business (2008). Report: Bahrain 2008. p. 153. ISBN 9781902339979.
  190. Jump up^ "VIVA subscribers surge"Gulf Daily News. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  191. Jump up^ "Arab Advisors Group reveals Bahrain's communications connectivity leading the region (press release)"AMEinfo. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
  192. Jump up^ "ITU Internet Indicators 2000"International Telecommunications Union. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
  193. Jump up^ "ITU Internet Indicators 2008"International Telecommunications Union. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
  194. Jump up^ "Market Information - No. of Licenses Issued". Telecommunication Regulatory Authority (Kingdom of Bahrain). Retrieved 29 August 2013.
  195. Jump up^ "Bahrain's population crossed 1m in December". 28 February 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  196. Jump up^ "290,000 Indians in Bahrain". 5 July 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  197. Jump up^ "Indian Community". Indian Embassy. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
  198. Jump up^ "Bahrain: metropolitan areas". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 9 Feb 2013.
  199. Jump up^ Taheri, Amir (17 February 2011). "Why Bahrain blew up".New York Post. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  200. Jump up^ Carey, Glen; Hatem, Mohammed (16 February 2011)."Bahrain Shiites May Rally After Funeral for Protester". Bloomberg. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
  201. Jump up^ "Bahrain: it may be small, but it matters – Channel 4 News". 17 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  202. Jump up^ "UK FCO". UK FCO. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  203. Jump up^ "2010 Census Results". Retrieved June 15, 2012.
  204. Jump up^ Chana Ya'ar (2010-11-28). "King of Bahrain Appoints Jewish Woman to Parliament". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  205. Jump up^ Habib Toumi (2007-04-04). "Bahrain defends contacts with US Jewish body".
  206. Jump up^ "Bahrain names Jewish ambassador (with photo)". BBC News. 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2011-05-31.
  207. Jump up^ "Roundup on status of Baha'is in Muslim-majority countries". The Muslim Network for Baha’i Rights. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  208. Jump up^ Kettani, Houssain (June 2010). "Muslim Population in Asia 1950–2020"International Journal of Environmental Science and Development 1 (2): 143–144. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  209. Jump up^ "Bahrain denies bid to naturalise SyriansGulf News. September 24, 2012
  210. Jump up to:a b c "Bahrain: Languages". Britannica Online. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  211. Jump up^ "Living in Bahrain". BSB. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  212. Jump up^ "Bahrain's Education System". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  213. Jump up^ "Education in Bahrain". Ministry of Education Bahrain. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  214. Jump up to:a b c "History of Education in Bahrain". Ministry of Education, Bahrain. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  215. Jump up^ "Statistics for the academic year 2011/2012". Ministry of Education, Bahrain. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  216. Jump up^ "King Hamad's Schools of Future project". Ministry of Education, Bahrain. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  217. Jump up^ "Education". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bahrain. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  218. Jump up^ "Management Consultancy Group – Bahrain". InfoBahrain. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  219. Jump up^ "Health Care Financing and Expenditure". WHO. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  220. Jump up^ "Healthcare in the Kingdom of Bahrain". Ministry of Health, Bahrain. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  221. Jump up^ "Bahrain Society". American Bahraini Friendship Society. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  222. Jump up^ "SMC admissions". Ministry of Health, Bahrain. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  223. Jump up to:a b c "Combatting HIV/AIDS and other diseases in Bahrain". United Nations Development Program. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  224. Jump up^ "Immunization Profile – Bahrain". World Health Organisation. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  225. Jump up^ "Country Profile- Bahrain". WHO. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  226. Jump up^ "Diabetes in Bahrain". TimeOut Bahrain. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  227. Jump up^ "Noncommunicable diseases in Bahrain". World Health Organisation. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  228. Jump up^ "Features of sickle-cell disease in Bahrain". Gulf Genetic Centre. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  229. Jump up^ "Bahrain: Middle East Lite". Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  230. Jump up^ "Ambassador Nonoo highlights religious freedom in Bahrain". Diplonews. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  231. Jump up^ "2013 State Sponsored Homophobia Report".International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. p. 20. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  232. Jump up^ Bahrain tops publishing sector among Arab states Gulf News, 4 January 2006
  233. Jump up to:a b c Bloom, Jonathan M. (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. p. 253. ISBN 0-19-530991-X.
  234. Jump up^ Fattouh, Mayssa. "Bahrain's Art and Culture Scenes". Nafas. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  235. Jump up^ Aldosari, Ali (2006). Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 39.ISBN 9780761475712.
  236. Jump up^ "Bahrain - The Arts and the Humanities". Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  237. Jump up^ al-Jayousi, Mohammed (7 February 2011). "Bahraini poet Ali al-Sharqawi looks to explore 'cosmic spirit' in his works"Al Shorfa. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  238. Jump up^ Lewis, Paul (18 November 1984). "Eden on the isle of Bahrain"New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  239. Jump up^ Meixler, Louis (20 September 1998). "An Ancient Garden of Eden Is Unearthed in Persian Gulf's Bahrain"Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  240. Jump up to:a b Frishkopf, Michael (2010). Music and Media in the Arab World. American University in Cairo. pp. 114–116. ISBN 977-416-293-5.
  241. Jump up^ "Bahrain Football Association" (in Arabic). Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  242. Jump up^ "Bahrain Olympic Profile"The Telegraph. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  243. Jump up^ "Bahrain wins first medal in Olympics thanks to Maryam Jamal"Kuwait News Agency. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  244. Jump up^ "Female Gulf athletes make their mark in London Olympics". Al Arabiya. 13 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  245. Jump up^ Davis, Toby; Wildey, Alison (18 November 2009). "Factbox: Doping-Bahrain's Rashid Ramzi". Reuters. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  246. Jump up^ Noble, Jonatha (17 February 2011). "Bahrain GP2 Asia race cancelled". Autosport. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  247. Jump up^ Pleitgen, Frederik (18 April 2012). "Bahrain circuit boss: Race not a big risk". CNN. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  248. Jump up^ "Press Release: FIA Formula One World Championship – Bahrain Grang Prix"FIA.comFédération Internationale de l'Automobile. 13 April 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
  249. Jump up^ "Clashes in Bahrain ahead of F1 race"Al Jazeera. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  250. Jump up^ Pleitgen, Frederik (18 April 2012). "Bahrain circuit boss: Race not a big risk"CNN. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  251. Jump up^ News Wires (21 April 2012). "Bahrain security, protesters clash ahead of Grand Prix"France 24AFP. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  252. Jump up^ "Protests As Anger Over Bahrain F1 Race Grows"Sky News Online. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  253. Jump up^ Taylor, Jerome; Tremayne, David (21 April 2012). "Rage against the Formula One machine"The Independent(London). Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  254. Jump up^ "BIC: Drag Racing". Retrieved 17 June 2012.


  1. Jump up^ 2010 Census shows only two religion categories: "Muslim" and "Other". Reasonably assuming majority of "Other" Bahraini citizens is Christian.


External links[edit]Edit

Coordinates26°01′39″N 50°33′00″E